Peer Reviewed


Effects of in situ CO2 enrichment on structural characteristics, photosynthesis, and growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, Cox, T.E., Gazeau, F., Alliouane, S., Hendriks, I.E., Mahacek, P., Le Fur, A., Gattuso, J.P.,Biogeosciences 13(7), 2179-2194. [PDF]




pH homeostasis during coral calcification in a free ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) experiment, Heron Island reef flat, Great Barrier Reef, Georgiou, L., Falter, J., Trotter, J., Kline, D.I., Holcomb, M., Dove, S.G., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., McCulloch, M., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. (PNAS) 112(43), 13219-13224. [PDF]




Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) Systems: Present Status and Future Developments, Gattuso, J.P., Kirkwood, W., Barry, J.P., Cox, E., Gazeau, F., Hansson, L., Hendriks, I., Kline, D.I., Mahacek, P., Martin, S., McElhany, P., Peltzer, E.T., Reeve, J., Roberts, D., Saderne, V., Tait, K., Widdicombe, S., Brewer, P.G., Biogeosciences 11(3), 4057-4075. [PDF]




A short-term in situ CO2 enrichment experiment on Heron Island (GBR), David I. Kline, Lida Teneva, Kenneth Schneider, Thomas Miard, Aaron Chai, Malcolm Marker, Kent Headley, Brad Opdyke, Merinda Nash, Matthew Valetich, Jeremy K. Caves, Bayden D. Russell, Sean D. Connell, Bill J. Kirkwood, Peter Brewer, Edward Peltzer, Jack Silverman, Ken Caldeira, Robert B. Dunbar, Jeffrey R. Koseff et al., Scientific Reports 2, Article number: 413 doi:10.1038/srep00413. Received 29 March 2012. Accepted 04 May 2012. Published 21 May 2012. [WWW]




Limits to Marine Life , Brewer, P. G. and E. T. Peltzer, Science 324: 347-348. doi:10.1126/science.1170756. [PDF]




Unanticipated consequences of ocean acidification: A noisier ocean at lower pH, Hester, K. C., E. T. Peltzer, W. J. Kirkwood, and P. G. Brewer, Geophysical Research Letters 35: L19601, doi:10.1029/2008GL034913. [PDF]




Scaled-Up Ocean Injection of CO2-Hydrate composite particles, Tsouris, C., P. Szymcek, P. Taboada-Serrano, S.D. McCallum, P. Brewer, E. Peltzer, P. Walz, E. Adams, A. Chow, W.K. Johnson and J. Summers, Energy & Fuels 21: 3300-3309. doi:10.1021/ef070197h. [PDF]




Three-dimensional acoustic monitoring and modeling of a deep-sea CO2 droplet cloud, Brewer, P.G., B. Chen, R. Warzinski, A. Baggeroer, E.T. Peltzer, R.M. Dunk, and P.M. Walz, Geophysical Research Letters 33 L23607 doi:10.1029/2006GL027181. [PDF]


Comment on “Fate of a Rising CO2 Droplets in Seawater, Alendal, G., P.M. Haugan, R. Gangsto, K. Caldeira, E. Adams, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, G. Rehder, and T. Sato, Environmental Science and Technology 40: 3653-3654. doi:10.1021/es052458c. [PDF]


Determination of gas bubble fractionation rates in the deep ocean by laser Raman spectroscopy, White, S.N., P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, Marine Chemistry 99: 12-23. [PDF]




Seeing a deep ocean CO2 enrichment experiment in a new light: Laser raman detection of dissolved CO2 in seawater, Dunk, R.M., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, P.G. Brewer, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 9630-9636. doi:10.1021/es0511725. [PDF]


Field studies on the formation of sinking CO2 particles for ocean carbon sequestration: Effects of injector geometry on particle density and dissolution rate and model simulation of plume behavior, Riestenberg, D., C. Tsouris, P.G. Brewer, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, A. Chow, E. Adams, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 7287-7293. doi:10.1021/es050125. [PDF]


First results from a controlled deep sea CO2 perturbation experiment: Evidence for rapid equilibration of the oceanic CO2 system at depth, Nakayama, N., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, P.G. Brewer, Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C09S11, doi:10.1029/2004JC002597. [PDF]


Deep ocean experiments with fossil fuel carbon dioxide: creation and sensing of a controlled plume at 4 km depth, Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, I. Aya, K. Yamane, R. Kojima, Y. Nakajima, N. Nakayama, P. Haugan, T. Johannessen, Journal of Marine Research 63: 9-33. [PDF]




Effects of direct ocean CO2 injection on deep-sea meiofauna, Barry, J.P., K.R. Buck, C.F. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, P.J. Whaling, E.T. Peltzer, P. Walz, P.G. Brewer, Journal of Oceanography 60: 759-766. [PDF]


Small scale field study of an ocean CO2 plume, Brewer, P.G., E. Peltzer, I. Aya, P. Haugan, R. Bellerby, K. Yamane, R. Kojima, P. Walz, Y. Nakajima, Journal of Oceanography 60: 751-758. [PDF]




Experimental determination of the fate of rising CO2 droplets in sea water, Brewer, P.G., E.T. Peltzer, G. Friederich and G. Rehder, Environmental Science Technology 36 5441-5446. [PDF]




A field study of the effects of CO2 disposal on mobile deep-sea animals, Tamburri, M., E. T. Peltzer, G. Friederich, I. Aya, K. Yamane, and P. G. Brewer, Marine Chemistry 72: 95-101. [PDF]


Experiments on the ocean sequestration of fossil fuel CO2: pH measurements and hydrate formation, Brewer, P.G., E. T. Peltzer, G. Friederich, I. Aya, and K. Yamane, Marine Chemistry 72: 83-93. [PDF]




Direct experiments on the ocean disposal of fossil fuel CO2, Brewer, P. G., G. Friederich, E. T. Peltzer and F. M. Orr, Jr., Science 284: 943-945. [PDF]



Other Publications


Third xFOCE Workshop: Present Status and Future Developments of In Situ Ocean Acidification Experiments, Stark, J.S., Gattuso, J.-P., Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin: 25(3), August. [PDF]




xFOCE: Long term impacts of ocean acidification in situ, Gattuso, J.-P., Kirkwood, W., Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin: 23(1), 15-16, January. [WWW]




Progress in Controlled In Situ Ocean Acidification Experiments, FOCE Systems: Present Status and Future Developments; Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, 10-12 December 2012, Peter Brewer, William Kirkwood and Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Eos Trans. AGU, 94(16), 152, Published 16 APR 2013, doi:10.1002/2013EO160004. [PDF]


Open Source Instrumentation Nodes for the Greater Oceanographic Community, C.D. Kecy, E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, K. Headley, R.A. Herlien, T. Maughan, G.I. Matsumoto, T.C. O' Reilly, K.A. Salamy, F. Shane, C. Lovera, J. Schofield, W. Kirkwood, J.P. Barry, and P.G. Brewer, OCEANS 2013 IEEE - San Diego, CA pp.1-7, 23-27 September, 2013 URL:  [PDF]


xFOCE: An Open Source, Multi-disciplinary Resource for in-Situ Ocean Acidification Research, F.F. Shane, K. Headley, P. Walz, C. Kecy, G.I. Matsumoto, R.A. Herlien, E.T. Peltzer, J. Scholfield, K.A. Salamy, T. Maughan, T.C. O'Reilly, C. Lovera, W.J. Kirkwood, J. Barry, and P.G. Brewer, OCEANS 2013 IEEE - San Diego, CA pp.1-6, 23-27 September, 2013 URL:  [PDF]




xFOCE: Technology for Studying Ocean Acidification Impacts, K. L. Headley, R.A. Herlien, C.D. Kecy, G.I. Matsumoto, T. Maughan, T. C. O’Reilly, E.T. Peltzer, K.A. Salamy, J. Scholfield, F. Shane, P.M. Walz, P.G. Brewer, W.J. Kirkwood, J.P. Barry, (2012, Sep) Poster session presented at Third Symposium on The Ocean in a High-CO2 World, Monterey, CA. [PDF]




Design and Development of the CO2 Enriched Seawater Distribution System, C.D. Kecy, E.T. Peltzer, P.M. Walz, K. Headley, B. Herlien, W. Kirkwood, T. O' Reilly, K.A. Salamy, F. Shane, J. Schofield, and P.G. Brewer, OCEANS 2011 IEEE - Waikoloa, HI pp.1-8, 19-22 September, 2011 URL:  [PDF]




The Coral Proto - Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment System (CP-FOCE): Engineering and development, Marker, M.; Kline, D.I.; Kirkwood, W.J.; Headley, K.; Brewer, P.G.; Peltzer, E.T.; Miard, T.; Chai, A.; James, M.; Schneider, K.; Silverman, J.; Caldeira, K.; Koseff, J.R.; Monismith, S.; Opdyke, B.; Dunbar, R.; White, R.; Dove, S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O., OCEANS 2010 IEEE - Sydney, vol., no., pp.1-10, 24-27 May 2010 doi: 10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603603  [PDF]